History of Tonga
Research on Pacific topics has accelerated in the 20th century and this paper focuses on specific changes in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga. Some brief comments are made about the future “isolation” of Pacific Islanders and the potential for communication by satellite. Nineteenth century anthropologists “drew heavily on historical materials to establish a comparative study of society and culture” Cohn Schewerin has pointed out that numerous factors contributed to the development of this research tool in the last century: Frequently ethnohistorical research could significantly enlarge the data base and provide greater time depth in tracing a particular sequence of culture change.
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Dave Burley Lapita dispersal It only took a generation or two for the first settlers of Polynesia to spread from their original colonisation site in Tonga, a new study has found. The rapid spread could have been driven by resource depletion and sibling rivalry, says archaeologist Professor Marshall Weisler of the University of Queensland.
Their conclusions were based on uranium isotope dating of coral abraders used by the Lapita people to make fish hooks, ornaments and tools. Now, in a paper published in PLOS ONE , Weisler and colleagues have got a picture of how long it took the Lapita to spread to other islands in Tonga, and how long daughter populations stayed in touch with the founder population.
The researchers dated 65 samples including coral abraders, animal bones, shell tools and charcoal from ovens from 20 Lapita sites across the Tongan archipelago. They combined uranium- and radiocarbon-dating techniques in a so-called ‘Bayesian model’ to get the most precise chronology of early Polynesian movement.
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AAP “The first thing that came to my mind was my family. Growing up in Tonga as a young kid, all I wanted to do was to play for Australia one day and now I can do that this weekend. I can’t wait, I just wish my family was here. I know my team will have my back, so I can’t wait. Tupou toured with the national team last year but only in a development capacity and since then has chalked up another 14 games for the Queensland Reds in Super Rugby.
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They ruled these nations for more than years, sparking some historians to refer to a “Tongan Empire”, although it was more of a network of interacting navigators, chiefs, and adventurers. It is unclear whether chiefs of the other islands actually came to Tonga regularly to acknowledge their sovereign. Distinctive pottery and Tapa cloth designs also show that the Tongans have travelled from the far reaches of Micronesia, to Fiji and Hawaii.
According to leading Tongan scholars, including Okusitino Mahina, the Tongan and Samoan oral traditions indicate that the first Tu’i Tonga was the son of their god Tangaloa. This tribute was known as the ” ‘Inasi ” and was conducted annually at Mu’a following the harvest season when all countries that were subject to the Tu’i Tonga must bring a gift for the gods, who was recognized as the Tu’i Tonga. These mats, including the Maneafaingaa and Tasiaeafe, are considered the crown jewels of the current Tupou line  which is derived matrilineally from Samoa.
The most common vessels were long-distance double-canoes fitted with triangular sails. The largest canoes of the Tongan kalia type could carry up to men. In AD , Takalaua was assassinated by two foreigners while swimming in the lagoon of Mu’a. The Tu’i Tonga “empire” at this period becomes Samoan in orientation as the Tu’i Tonga kings themselves became ethnic Samoans who married Samoan women and resided in Samoa. The Tu’i Kanokupolu dynasty oversaw the importation and institution of many Samoan policies and titles and according to Tongan scholars this Samoanized form of government and custom continues today in the modern Kingdom of Tonga  Things continued this way for a long time afterward.
The first Europeans arrived in , when the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire spotted Tongans in a canoe off the coast of Niuatoputapu, and the famous Abel Tasman followed soon after. These visits were brief, however, and did not change the island much at all. The dividing line between the two moieties was the old coastal road named Hala Fonua moa dry land road.
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Not knowing is the worst thing. He talks wistfully of taro, breadfruit and pig roasts. The food is different in Romania. So too the weather. In winter it reaches C around these parts; the coldest it gets in Tonga is about 15C. The language is even more alien, although he says the people of Baia Mare have been very kind to him. Initially he was allowed to remain in the club hotel, although he claims his wages were cut by more than 50 per cent.
History of Tonga
Friendly Islands Orientation Identification. The name “Tonga” is composed of to to plant and nga a place. It also means “south. Thus, it is appropriate to translate the nation’s name as “land lying in the south. Tonga is an archipelago of one hundred fifty islands, thirty-six of which are inhabited.
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Local production of Samoan lithics contrasts with the extensive dispersal of Samoan adzes in Oceania Fig. Two lithic collections from Samoa were used to examine whether the Tongan chiefdom acquired more exotic lithics than other stratified societies in the Central Pacific. There is substantial continuity in the Samoan adze sequence, and although the relative age of individual tools cannot be determined precisely, the majority is associated with postceramic sites and probably date, therefore, to the past 1, y 32 , To test the proposition that exotic lithics were especially important to the Tongan state, we analyzed a collection of 41 stone tools and manuports from the Pulemelei Mound site.
The Pulemelei Mound is a monumental stone mound with a volume of 17, m3, surrounded by more than 1, smaller stone platforms, indicating it held an important position in the settlement hierarchy and was coeval with the stone architecture of the Tongan state Both assemblages are museum collections and could only be examined with nondestructive pXRF. There are three possible imports samples , , and from Uvea in the Samoa adze-flake assemblage. Two are adze-flakes from the Pulemelei Mound samples and Sample is a surface-collected adze from Upolu that has similar trace element values to a reference sample from Upolu and is also probably local.
The proportion of exotic and local lithics in each of the three assemblages is summarized in Fig. Discussion Based on our geochemical analyses, there was extensive movement of lithics into the Tongan state, with stone tools sourced from volcanic islands in the Tonga archipelago as well as Fiji, Samoa, and remarkably Tahiti, 2, km east of Tongatapu. The core area of the Tongan state covers an area of , square km and has a periphery zone up to seven times larger if the Society Islands are the source of Lapaha sample
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After several complaints, a solution was found. However, it’s incredible that an international team, during a World Cup, would have to pay for gym access. I would like to know whether any other team in the whole tournament had suffered treatment like this. The problems began as soon as the team arrived in the garden city. Our constitutional foundation, Te Tiriti, ensures that iwi, hapu, and whanau must not be an afterthought.
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The culture of West Polynesia is conditioned to high populations. It has strong institutions of marriage and well-developed judicial, monetary and trading traditions. It comprises the groups of Tonga , Niue , Samoa and extends to the atolls of Tuvalu to the north. The pattern of settlement that is believed to have occurred is that the Polynesians spread out from the Samoan Islands into the Tuvaluan atolls, with Tuvalu providing a stepping stone to migration into the Polynesian Outlier communities in Melanesia and Micronesia.
The large islands of New Zealand were first settled by Eastern Polynesians who adapted their culture to a non-tropical environment. Unlike Melanesia , leaders were chosen in Polynesia based on their hereditary bloodline. Samoa, however, had another system of government that combines elements of heredity and real-world skills to choose leaders.
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In a study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Geoffrey Clarke of Australian National University and his team analyzed Tongan stone artifacts and found that two-thirds of them came from outside Tonga, one from as far as 2, kilometers away. The researchers believe Tonga served as a trade hub where people from across Polynesia traveled to exchange goods and political ideas. In the first half of the second millennium A.
The centralized government developed political and economic relations with other islands and archipelagos, becoming the seat of a large maritime empire. To understand just how far this empire extended, Clarke’s team studied Tongan stone artifacts to find out how many were imported and where the imports originated. They examined more than artifacts found in Tongan political centers, most of them near royal tombs.
Because different types of rocks make up the different Central Pacific islands, the researchers were able to determine the artifacts’ places of origin by analyzing their composition. Clarke’s team found that about two-thirds of stone tools they studied came from Fiji, Samoa and Tahiti, 2, miles away from Tonga. Based on their findings, the the team estimates that that the Tongan trading empire could have been , square kilometers in size.
Traditional histories and linguistic evidence suggest that Tonga’s zone of influence was even larger.